# #122 Op-amp Timer

Test an op-amp timer switch.

## Notes

This circuit uses an op-amp configured as a comparator to switch an output for a period of time governed by a variable RC time constant (𝛕).

The comparator switching point is half the supply voltage, set by the R1/R2 voltage divider. So with a 5V supply, the switching point is 2.5V.

At steady-state, C1 is fully charged to positive supply and this sets the inverting op-amp input well above the non-inverting threshold and therefore the op-amp output is off (low).

When S1 is pressed, C1 is fully discharged and the inverting op-amp input pulled low, so op-amp output switches on (high).

When S1 is released, C1 charges through R4+R5, and the op-amp output remains high until the C1 voltage reaches the switching threshold. R4 is a 50kΩ pot, which allows the switching time to be adjusted. R1 is included to set a minimum resistance and avoid a short if R4 is dialed to 0Ω.

The time it takes to switch can be determined from the RC complete response formula. Assuming a 5V supply:

``````v(t) = v(∞) + [v(0) - v(∞)] e^(-t/𝛕)
2.5 = 5 - 5 e^(-t/𝛕)
2.5/5 = e^(-t/𝛕)
ln(0.5) = -t/𝛕
t = - 𝛕 ln(0.5)
``````

So the low and high timing limits are:

• when R4+R5=1kΩ and C=47µF: 32ms
• when R4+R5=51kΩ and C=47µF: 1.6s

Note that the switching logic may be flipped to normally on with a timed off period by switching the inverting/non-inverting inputs.

The LM741 is not capable or rail-to-rail operation. In fact it is not a particularly good op-amp - but it is convenient. With a 5V supply, the particular unit used here only measures a 2.6V swing:

• output low: 1.6V
• output high: 4.2V

Here’s a sample trace of the circuit behaviour recorded using LEAP#090 PlotNValues (a simple Processing sketch)

• upper trace is the op-amp output
• lower trace is the non-inverting input (i.e. C1 voltage)

## Construction

Note: the Arduino is included for measurement purposes only. The circuit does not require it. When a 5V Arduino like the Uno is attached, the circuit should also be powered at 5V. Without the Arduino, the supply could be anything within the operating limits of the op-amp, with perhaps R3 adjusted to limit current to the LED as required.

## Credits and References

About
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This page is a web-friendly rendering of my project notes shared in the LEAP GitHub repository.

LEAP is just my personal collection of projects. Two main themes have emerged in recent years, sometimes combined:

• electronics - usually involving an Arduino or other microprocessor in one way or another. Some are full-blown projects, while many are trivial breadboard experiments, intended to learn and explore something interesting
• scale modelling - I caught the bug after deciding to build a Harrier during covid to demonstrate an electronic jet engine simulation. Let the fun begin..
To be honest, I haven't quite figured out if these two interests belong in the same GitHub repo or not. But for now - they are all here!

Projects are often inspired by things found wild on the net, or ideas from the many great electronics and scale modelling podcasts and YouTube channels. Feel free to borrow liberally, and if you spot any issues do let me know (or send a PR!). See the individual projects for credits where due.